Hackney carriage

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LTI TX2 cab
LTI FX4 cab
The Beardmore was an alternative taxi design used in London during the 1960s and 1970s.
Until the late 1950s, vehicles licensed as London taxis were required to be provided with a luggage platform, open to the street, on the sidewalk side, at the front, beside the driver,[1][2][3][4] in place of the front passenger seat found on other passenger cars (including taxis licensed for use in other British cities).

A hackney or hackney carriage (also called a cab, black cab, hack or London taxi) is a carriage or car for hire.[5] A hackney of a more expensive or high class was called a remise.[6] A symbol of London and Britain, the black taxi is a common sight on the streets of London.[7] The hackney carriages carry a roof sign TAXI that can be illuminated to indicate their availability for passengers.[8]

In the UK, the name hackney carriage today refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office, local authority (non-metropolitan district councils, unitary authorities) or the Department of the Environment depending on region of the country.[9]

In the United States, the police department of the city of Boston has a Hackney Carriage Unit, analogous to taxicab regulators in other cities, that issues Hackney Carriage medallions to its taxi operators.[10]

Etymology[edit]

The origins of the word hackney in connection with horses and carriages are uncertain. The origin is often attributed to the London borough of Hackney, whose name likely originated in Old English meaning 'Haka's Island'. There is some doubt whether the word hack for a horse was derived from this place-name, as the area was historically marshy and not well-suited for keeping horses.[11] The American Hackney Horse Society favours an alternative etymology stemming from the French word haquenée—a horse of medium size recommended for lady riders—which was brought to England with the Norman Conquest and became fully assimilated into the English language by the start of the 14th century. The word became associated with an ambling horse, usually for hire.

The place-name, through its famous association with horses and horse-drawn carriages, is also the root of the Spanish word jaca, a term used for a small breed of horse[12] and the Sardinian achetta horse. The first documented hackney coach—the name later extended to the newer and smaller carriages—operated in London in 1621.

The New York City colloquial terms "hack" (taxi or taxi-driver), hackstand (taxi stand), and hack license (taxi licence) are probably derived from hackney carriage. Such cabs are now regulated by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission.[13]

History[edit]

Hackney coaches
Hackney Coaches, etc. Act 1694
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for the lycenseing and regulateing Hackney-Coaches and Stage-Coaches.
Citation5 & 6 Will. & Mar. c. 22
Dates
Royal assent25 April 1694
Other legislation
Repealed byStatute Law Revision Act 1867
Status: Repealed
Text of statute as originally enacted
Hackney Chairs Act 1712
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for explaining the Acts for licensing Hackney Chairs.
Citation12 Ann. c. 15
  • (Ruffhead: 12 Ann. St. 1 c. 14)
Dates
Royal assent16 July 1713
Other legislation
Repealed byLondon Hackney Carriage Act 1831
Status: Repealed
Hackney Coaches, etc. Act 1715
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for the better regulating Hackney Coaches, Carts, Drays, Cars, and Waggons, within the Cities of London and Westminster, and the Weekly Bills of Mortality; and for preventing Mischiefs occasioned by the Drivers riding upon such Carts, Drays, Cars, and Waggons.
Citation1 Geo. 1. St. 2. c. 57
Dates
Royal assent26 June 1716
Other legislation
Repealed byStatute Law Revision Act 1867
Status: Repealed
Hackney Coaches Act 1771
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for licensing an additional Number of Hackney Coaches, and applying the Monies arising thereby.
Citation11 Geo. 3. c. 24
Dates
Royal assent12 April 1771
Hackney Coachmen Act 1771
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for punishing Offences committed by Hackney Coachmen and Chairmen, within certain Districts and Places therein mentioned, and for renewing the Registry of Carts and Carriages.
Citation11 Geo. 3. c. 28
Dates
Royal assent29 April 1771
Hackney Coaches Act 1772
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act to explain and amend an Act, made in the Seventh Year of the Reign of His present Majesty, intituled, "An Act for altering the Stamp Duties upon Policies of Assurances; and for reducing the Allowance to be made in respect of the Prompt Payment of the Stamp Duties on Licences for retailing Beer, Ale, and other exciseable Liquors; and for explaining and amending several Acts of Parliament relating to Hackney Coaches and Chairs;" so far as the same relates to Hackney Coaches.
Citation12 Geo. 3. c. 49
Other legislation
Repealed byLondon Hackney Carriage Act 1831
Status: Repealed
Hackney Coaches Act 1784
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for laying an additional Duty on Hackney Coaches, and for explaining and amending several Acts of Parliament relating to Hackney Coaches.
Citation24 Geo. 3. Sess. 2. c. 27
Dates
Royal assent13 August 1784
Other legislation
Repealed byLondon Hackney Carriage Act 1831
Status: Repealed
Hackney Coaches Act 1786
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for explaining and amending an Act made in the Twenty-fourth Year of the Reign of His present Majesty, intituled, "An Act for laying an additional Duty on Hackney Coaches, and for explaining and amending several Acts of Parliament relating to Hackney Coaches."
Citation26 Geo. 3. c. 72
Dates
Royal assent4 July 1786
Hackney Coaches Act 1792
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act to explain and amend so much of an Act made in the Seventh Year of the Reign of His present Majesty, as relates to Hackney Coaches and Chairs.
Citation32 Geo. 3. c. 47
Dates
Royal assent11 June 1792
London Hackney Carriage Act 1800
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for repealing the Rates and Fares taken by Licenced Hackney Coachmen, and for establishing other Rates and Fares in lieu thereof; and for explaining and amending several Laws relating to Hackney Coaches and Chairs.
Citation39 & 40 Geo. 3. c. 47
Dates
Royal assent30 May 1800
Other legislation
Repealed byLondon Hackney Carriage Act 1831
Status: Repealed
Hackney Coaches Act 1804
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn act for explaining and amending several Acts relating to Hackney Coaches employed as Stage Coaches, and for indemnifying the Owners of Hackney Coaches who have omitted to take out Licences, pursuant to an Act made in the twenty-fifth Year of his present Majesty.
Citation44 Geo. 3. c. 88
Dates
Royal assent20 July 1804
Other legislation
Repealed byLondon Hackney Carriage Act 1831
Status: Repealed
Hackney Carriages Act 1815
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn act to amend several Acts relating to Hackney Coaches; for authorizing the licensing of an additional Number of Hackney Chariots; and for licensing Carriages drawn by One Horse.
Citation55 Geo. 3. c. 159
Dates
Royal assent11 July 1815
Other legislation
Repealed byLondon Hackney Carriage Act 1831
Status: Repealed
London Hackney Carriage Act 1831
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act to amend the Laws relating to Hackney Carriages, and to Waggons, Carts, and Drays, used in the Metropolis; and to place the Collection of the Duties on Hackney Carriages and on Hawkers and Pedlars in England under the Commissioners of Stamps.
Citation1 & 2 Will. 4. c. 22
Dates
Royal assent22 September 1831
Other legislation
Repeals/revokes
  • Hackney Chairs Act 1712
  • Hackney Chairs, etc. Act 1759
  • Hackney Coaches Act 1771
  • Hackney Coachmen Act 1771
  • Hackney Coaches Act 1772
  • Hackney Coaches Act 1784
  • Hackney Coaches Act 1786
  • Hackney Coaches Act 1792
  • London Hackney Carriage Act 1800
  • Hackney Coaches, Metropolis Act 1802
  • Hackney Coaches Act 1804
  • Hackney Coach Fares Act 1808
  • Hackney Coaches Act 1814
  • Hackney Carriages Act 1815
  • Hackney Coach Licences Act 1817
Amended by
Status: Amended
Text of the London Hackney Carriage Act 1831 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.
London Hackney Carriages Act 1843
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act for regulating Hackney and Stage Carriages in and near London.
Citation6 & 7 Vict. c. 86
Dates
Royal assent22 August 1843
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Text of the London Hackney Carriages Act 1843 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.
London Cab Act 1968
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act to extend the power of the Secretary of State to prescribe fares in respect of journeys by cab within the metropolitan police district and the City of London; to make provision for extending the length of such journeys which the driver of a cab is obliged by law to undertake; to relax restrictions on the parking of cabs; to prohibit the display on certain vehicles in that district or the City of London of signs or notices containing the word " taxi" or " cab " and signs or notices of certain other descriptions; and to restrict the issue, in connection with certain vehicles, of advertisements containing either of those words.
Citation1968 c. 7
Dates
Royal assent15 February 1968
Other legislation
Amended byLondon Cab Act 1973
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Text of the London Cab Act 1968 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.
London Cab Act 1973
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act to amend the London Cab Act 1968.
Citation1973 c. c. 20
Dates
Royal assent23 May 1973
Other legislation
AmendsLondon Cab Act 1968
Status: Current legislation
Text of statute as originally enacted
Text of the London Cab Act 1973 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.

The widespread use of private coaches by the English aristocracy began to be seen in the 1580s; within fifty years hackney coaches were regularly to be seen on the streets of London. In the 1620s there was a proliferation of coaches for hire in the metropolis, so much so that they were seen as a danger to pedestrians in the narrow streets of the city, and in 1635 an Order in Council was issued limiting the number allowed. Two years later a system for licensing hackney coachmen was established (overseen by the Master of the Horse).[14]

"An Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent" was approved by Parliament in 1654, to remedy what it described as the "many Inconveniences [that] do daily arise by reason of the late increase and great irregularity of Hackney Coaches and Hackney Coachmen in London, Westminster and the places thereabouts".[15] The first hackney-carriage licences date from a 1662 act of Parliament, the Streets, London and Westminster Act 1662 (14 Cha. 2. c. 2) establishing the Commissioners of Scotland Yard to regulate them. Licences applied literally to horse-drawn carriages, later modernised as hansom cabs (1834), that operated as vehicles for hire. The 1662 act limited the licences to 400; when it expired in 1679, extra licences were created until a 1694 act imposed a limit of 700.[16] The limit was increased to 800 in 1715, 1,000 in 1770 and 1,100 in 1802, before being abolished in 1832.[17] The 1694 Act established the Hackney Coach Commissioners to oversee the regulation of fares, licences and other matters; in 1831 their work was taken over by the Stamp Office and in 1869 responsibility for licensing was passed on to the Metropolitan Police. In the 18th and 19th centuries, private carriages were commonly sold off for use as hackney carriages, often displaying painted-over traces of the previous owner's coat of arms on the doors.[18]

There was a distinction between a general hackney carriage and a hackney coach, which was specifically a hireable vehicle with four wheels, two horses and six seats: four on the inside for the passengers and two on the outside (one for a servant and the other for the driver, who was popularly termed the Jarvey (also spelled jarvie)). For many years only coaches, to this specification, could be licensed for hire; but in 1814 the licensing of up to 200 hackney chariots was permitted, which carried a maximum of three passengers inside and one servant outside (such was the popularity of these new faster carriages that the number of licences was doubled the following year).

Hansom cab, London, 1904

Shortly afterwards even lighter carriages began to be licensed: the two-wheel, single-horse cabriolets or 'cabs', which were licensed to carry no more than two passengers.[14] Then, in 1834, the hansom cab was patented by Joseph Hansom: a jaunty single-horse, two-wheel carriage with a distinctive appearance, designed to carry passengers safely in an urban environment. The hansom cab quickly established itself as the standard two-wheel hackney carriage and remained in use into the 20th century.[18]

London growler c. 1900

In 1836 the Clarence was introduced to London's streets: a type of small four-wheel enclosed carriage drawn by one or two horses.[19][20] These became known as 'growlers' because of the sound they made on the cobbled streets. Much slower than a hansom cab, they nevertheless had room for up to four passengers (plus one servant) and space on the roof for luggage. As such they remained in use as the standard form of four-wheeled hackney carriage until replaced by motorised taxi cabs in the early 20th century.

A small, usually two-wheeled, one-horse hackney vehicle called a noddy once plied the roads in Ireland and Scotland. The French had a small hackney coach called a fiacre.

Motorisation[edit]

Electric hackney carriages appeared before the introduction of the internal combustion engine to vehicles for hire in 1897. In fact there was even London Electrical Cab Company: the cabs were informally called Berseys after the manager who designed them, Walter Bersey. Another nickname was Hummingbirds from the sound that they made.[21] In August 1897, 25 were introduced, and by 1898, there were 50 more. During the early 20th century, cars generally replaced horse-drawn models. In 1910, the number of motor cabs on London streets outnumbered horse-drawn growlers and hansoms for the first time. At the time of the outbreak of World War I, the ratio was seven to one in favor of motorized cabs.[22] The last horse-drawn hackney carriage ceased service in London in 1947.[23]

UK regulations define a hackney carriage as a taxicab allowed to ply the streets looking for passengers to pick up, as opposed to private hire vehicles (sometimes called minicabs), which may pick up only passengers who have previously booked or who visit the taxi operator's office. In 1999, the first of a series of fuel cell powered taxis were tried out in London. The "Millennium Cab" built by ZeTek gained television coverage and great interest when driven in the Sheraton Hotel ballroom in New York by Judd Hirsch, the star of the television series Taxi. ZeTek built three cabs but ceased activities in 2001.[citation needed]

Continuing horse-drawn cab services[edit]

Horse-drawn hackney services continue to operate in parts of the UK, for example in Cockington, Torquay.[24] The town of Windsor, Berkshire, is believed to be the last remaining town with a continuous lineage of horse-drawn hackney carriages, currently run by Orchard Poyle Carriages, the licence having been passed down from driver to driver since 1830.

The Royal Borough now licenses the carriage for rides around Windsor Castle and Great Park; however, the original hackney licence is in place, allowing for passenger travel under the same law that was originally passed in 1662. The city of Bath has an occasional horse-drawn Hackney, principally for tourists, but still carrying hackney plates.

Black cabs[edit]

Illuminated for hire signage is a distinguishing feature of the hackney carriage
A TX4 hackney carriage at Heathrow Airport Terminal 5

Though there has never been law requiring London's taxis to be black, they were, since the end of the Second World War, sold in a standard colour of black. This, in the 1970s gave rise within the minicab trade to the nickname 'black cab' and it has become common currency. However, before Second World War, London's cabs were seen in a variety of colours. They are produced in a variety of colours, sometimes in advertising brand liveries (see below). Fifty golden cabs were produced for the Queen's Golden Jubilee celebrations in 2002.[25]

Vehicle design[edit]

In Edwardian times, French-manufactured automobiles represented the overwhelming majority of London's motor cab trade, with Renault and Unic being the most common. Not only Renault and Unic, but also smaller players like Charron and Darracq were to be found.[22] Fiat was also a presence, with their importer d'Arcy Baker running a fleet of 400 cars of the brand. In the 1920s, Beardmore cabs were introduced and became for a while the most popular. They were nicknamed 'the Rolls-Royce of cabs' for their comfort and robustness. The American Yellow Cabs also appeared, though only in small numbers. Maxwell Monson introduced Citroën cabs, which were cheaper, but crude in comparison to the Beardmore. In 1930 dealers Mann and Overton struck a deal with the Austin to bring modified version of the Austin 12/4 car to the London taxi market. This established the Austin make as dominant until the end of the 1970s and Mann and Overton until 2012. Morrises cabs were also seen, in small numbers, but after the Second World War, produced the Oxford, made by Wolseleys,[22]

Outside of London, the regulations governing the hackney cab trade are different. Four-door saloon cars have been highly popular as hackney carriages, but with disability regulations growing in strength and some councils offering free licensing for disabled-friendly vehicles, many operators are now opting for wheelchair-adapted taxis such as the LEVC TX of London Electric Vehicle Company (LEVC). London taxis have broad rear doors that open very wide (or slide), and an electrically controlled ramp that is extended for access.[26] Other models of specialist taxis include the Peugeot E7 and rivals from Fiat, Ford, Volkswagen, and Mercedes-Benz. These vehicles normally allow six or seven passengers, although some models can accommodate eight. Some of these minibus taxis include a front passenger seat next to the driver, while others reserve this space solely for luggage.

A hackney carriage featuring in a London themed Paddington Bear statue located in Trafalgar Square, 2014

London taxis must have a turning circle not greater than 8.535 m (28 ft). One reason for this is the configuration of the famed Savoy Hotel: the hotel entrance's small roundabout meant that vehicles needed the small turning circle in order to navigate it. That requirement became the legally required turning circles for all London cabs, while the custom of a passenger's sitting on the right, behind the driver, provided a reason for the right-hand traffic in Savoy Court, allowing hotel patrons to board and alight from the driver's side.[27]

The design standards for London taxis are set out in the Conditions of Fitness, which are now published by Transport for London. The first edition was published in May 1906, by the Public Carriage Office, which was then part of the Metropolitan Police. These regulations set out the conditions under which a taxi may operate and have been updated over the years to keep pace with motor car development and legislation. Changes include regulating the taximeter (made compulsory in 1907), advertisements and the turning circle of 8.535 m (28 ft).[21][28] Until the beginning of the 1980s, London Taxis were not allowed to carry any advertisements.[22] The London Taxis fleet has been fully accessible since 1 January 2000,[29][30] following the introduction of the first accessible taxi in 1987.[31] Since 2018, all newly registered taxis in London must be zero emission, and as of December 2023 more than half of the 14,700 fleet is zero emission capable.[32]

As part of the Transported by Design programme of activities,[33] on 15 October 2015, after two months of public voting, the black cab was elected by Londoners as their favourite transport design icon.[34][35]

Driver qualification[edit]

In London, hackney-carriage drivers have to pass a test called The Knowledge to demonstrate that they have an intimate knowledge of the geography of London streets, important buildings, etc. Learning The Knowledge allows the driver to become a member of the Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers. There are two types of badge, a yellow one for the suburban areas and a green one for all of London. The latter is considered far more difficult. Drivers who own their cabs as opposed to renting from a garage are known as "mushers" and those who have just passed the "knowledge" are known as "butter boys".[36] There are currently around 21,000 black cabs in London, licensed by the Public Carriage Office.[37]

Elsewhere, councils have their own regulations. Some merely require a driver to pass a DBS disclosure and have a reasonably clean driving licence, while others use their own local versions of London's The Knowledge test.[citation needed]

Notable drivers[edit]

  • Alfred Collins, who retired in 2007 at the age of 92, was the oldest cab driver and had been driving for 70 years.[38]
  • Fred Housego is a former London taxi driver who became a television and radio personality and presenter after winning the BBC television quiz Mastermind in 1980.[39][40]
  • Clive Efford, Labour MP for the London constituency of Eltham, was a cab driver for 10 years before entering parliament in 1997.

Private users[edit]

Oil millionaire Nubar Gulbenkian owned an Austin FX3 Brougham Sedanca taxi, with custom coachwork by FLM Panelcraft Ltd as he was quoted "because it turns on a sixpence whatever that is."[41] Gulbenkian had two such taxis built, the second of which was built on an FX4 chassis and was sold at auction by Bonhams for $39,600 in 2015.[42] Other celebrities are known to have used hackney carriages both for their anonymity and their ruggedness and manoeuvrability in London traffic. Users included Prince Philip, whose cab was converted to run on liquefied petroleum gas,[43] author and actor Stephen Fry,[44] and the Sheriffs of the City of London. A black cab was used in the band Oasis's video for the song "Don't Look Back in Anger." Black cabs were used as recording studios for indie band performances and other performances in the Black Cab Sessions internet project.

Ghosthunting With... featured a black cab owned by host of the show, Yvette Fielding. Bez of the Happy Mondays owns one, shown on the UK edition of Pimp My Ride. Noel Edmonds used a black cab to commute from his home to the Deal or No Deal studios in Bristol. He placed a dressed mannequin in the back so that he could use special bus/taxi lanes, and so that people would not attempt to hail his cab.[45]

The official car of the Governor of the Falkland Islands between 1976 and 2010 was a London taxi.[46]

In other countries[edit]

A London taxi (TXII model) in Switzerland

Between 2003 and 1 August 2009 the London taxi model TXII could be purchased in the United States. Today there are approximately 250 TXIIs in the US, operating as taxis in San Francisco, Dallas, Long Beach, Houston, New Orleans, Las Vegas, Newport, Rhode Island, Wilmington, North Carolina and Portland, Oregon. There are also a few operating in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The largest London taxi rental fleet in North America is in Wilmington, owned by The British Taxi Company. There are London cabs in Saudi Arabia, Romania, South Africa, Lebanon, Egypt, Bahrain and Cyprus, and in Israel, where a Chinese-made version of LTI's model TX4 built by Geely Automobile is available. In February 2010, a number of TX4s started operating in Pristina, the capital of Kosovo, and are known as London Taxi.[47]

A London taxi (TX4 model) in Singapore

Singapore has used London-style cabs since 1992; starting with the "Fairway". The flag-down fares for the London Taxis are the same as for other taxis. SMRT Corporation, the sole operator, had by March 2013 replaced its fleet of 15 ageing multi-coloured (gold, pink, etc.) taxis with new white ones. They are the only wheelchair-accessible taxis in Singapore, and were brought back following an outcry after the removal of the service.[citation needed]

A London taxi (TX4 model) in Baku

By 2011 a thousand of a Chinese-made version of LTI's latest model, TX4, had been ordered by Baku Taxi Company. The plan is part of a program originally announced by Azerbaijan's Ministry of Transportation to introduce London cabs to the capital, Baku.[48][49] The move was part of a £16 million agreement between the London Taxi Company and Baku Taxi Company.[50][51]

A Nihon Kotsu Toyota JPN Taxi

Although the LEVC TX is more expensive and exceeds the Japanese size classifications to gain the tax advantages Japanese livery drivers enjoy with the similarly designed but smaller Toyota JPN Taxi, Geely has attempted to break into the Japanese market.[52] Alternatively, while the Toyota JPN Taxi doesn't meet the passenger capacity or turning radius Conditions of Fitness required by Transport for London, it does meet the emissions and accessibility requirements that may make it an ideal option for cities outside of London without the seating requirements or as a private hire vehicle while still evoking the familiar black cab profile.[53]

A London taxi in Beijing

During the 2008 Olympic Games, there were about 100 Hackney carriages were operating in Beijing.

Variety of models[edit]

There have been different makes and types of hackney cab through the years,[54] including:

Use in advertising[edit]

In October 2011 the company Eyetease Ltd. introduced digital screens on the roofs of London taxis for dynamically changing location-specific advertising.[56]

Future[edit]

On 14 December 2010, Mayor of London Boris Johnson released an air quality strategy paper encouraging phasing out of the oldest of the LT cabs, and proposing a £1m fund to encourage taxi owners to upgrade to low-emission vehicles. From 2018, all newly licensed taxis in London must be zero emission capable.[57]

In 2017, the LEVC TX was introduced - a purpose built hackney carriage, built as a plug-in hybrid range-extender electric vehicle.[58] By April 2022, over 5,000 TX's had been sold in London, around a third of London's taxi fleet.[59] In October 2019 the first fully electric cab since the Bersey in 1897, the Dynamo Taxi, was launched with a 187-mile range and with the bodywork based on Nissan's NV200 platform.[60][61]

Digital hailing[edit]

2011 saw the launch of many digital hailing applications for hackney carriages that operate through smartphones, including GetTaxi and Hailo. Many of these applications also facilitate payment and tracking of the taxicabs.[citation needed]

United Kingdom law[edit]

Laws about the definition, licensing and operation of hackney carriages have a long history.[62] The most significant pieces of legislation by region are:

  • In England and Wales: the Town Police Clauses Act 1847, and the Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1976. In Wales, responsibility for licensing is now devolved to the National Assembly for Wales. In September 2017, a consultation started about the future of such licensing.
  • In London: the Metropolitan Public Carriage Act 1869 and the London Cab Order 1934.
  • In Scotland: the Civic Government (Scotland) Act 1982.
  • In Northern Ireland: the Taxis Act (Northern Ireland) 2008[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fairway History". British Black Cab. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  2. ^ Transport Act 1985 - Legislation.gov.uk
  3. ^ "London Taxi History". LVTA. Archived from the original on 7 July 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  4. ^ Absolon, John (1940). "Taxi". WW2 People's War. Sough, East England: BBC. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  5. ^ "Definition of "hackney"". Onlinedictionary.datasegment.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  6. ^ "Definition of remise by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  7. ^ "We know where we're going: London's women black cab drivers". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 18 June 2022. Black cabs are synonymous with Britain; as strong a symbol of the London traffic-scape as red double-decker buses.
  8. ^ "London taxis, black cabs and minicabs". Visit London. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
  9. ^ "Where to, Guv?", London Assembly Transport Committee report into the Public Carriage Office, November 2005
  10. ^ "Boston Police Hackney Carriage Unit". Cityofboston.gov. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  11. ^ 'Oxford English Dictionary' online pay site accessed 18 April 2018
  12. ^ "jaca". Diccionario de la lengua española. Real Academia Española. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  13. ^ "About TLC - TLC". New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  14. ^ a b Dowell, Stephen (1884). A History of Taxes and Taxation in England: volume III. London: Longmans, Green & co. pp. 40–45.
  15. ^ An Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent, June 1654, british-history.ac.uk; accessed 26 May 2017.
  16. ^ "William and Mary, 1694: An Act for the lycenseing and regulateing Hackney-Coaches and Stage-Coaches [Chapter XXII Rot. Parl. pt. 5. nu. 2.]". Statutes of the Realm: Volume 6, 1685-94. Great Britain Record Commission. 1819. pp. 502–505. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  17. ^ "The Omnibuses of London". The Gentleman's Magazine. R. Newton: 663. December 1857.
  18. ^ a b McCausland, Hugh (1948). The English Carriage. London: Batchworth Press.
  19. ^ Knox, Thomas Wallace (1888) The pocket guide for Europe: hand-book for travellers on the Continent and the British Isles, and through Egypt, Palestine, and northern Africa G. Putnam, New York, page 34, OCLC 28649833
  20. ^ Busch, Noel F. (1947) "Life's Reports: Restful Days in Dublin" " Life Magazine 15 September 1947 page 9, includes a photograph of a growler.
  21. ^ a b "Taxi History - London Vintage Taxi Association". lvta.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  22. ^ a b c d Lord Montagu of Beaulieu (5 June 1982). "London's Taxis". Autocar. Vol. 156, no. 4459. IPC Business Press Ltd. p. 42.
  23. ^ Drozdz, Gregory (1990). Cab and Coach. p. 26. OCLC 841903541.
  24. ^ "Cockington Carriages plan for the future - Cockington Court". www.cockingtoncourt.org. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  25. ^ Golden times for black cabs, bbc.co.uk, 13 March 2002
  26. ^ "London Wheelchair Taxis with Ramps". Wheelchair Travel. 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  27. ^ "Why does traffic entering and leaving the Savoy Hotel in London drive on the right?". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  28. ^ "Construction and Licensing of Motor Taxis for Use in London: Conditions of Fitness, as updated 17 September 2019" (PDF). Transport for London: Public Carriage Office. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  29. ^ "London Taxis - Monday 16 January 1989 - Hansard - UK Parliament". hansard.parliament.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  30. ^ Mashburn, Rick (18 April 2004). "Rolling Along in London". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  31. ^ "Taxicab History". London-Taxi. Retrieved 25 August 2021. It was the first London cab to fully wheelchair accessible and to be licensed by the Public Carriage Office to carry four passengers.
  32. ^ "More than half of London's black taxis are zero emission capable". Transport for London. 6 December 2023. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  33. ^ "Transported by Design". Archived from the original on 17 April 2016.
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